Cancer is one of the most common diseases that grasp scientists’ and researchers’ attention. It is a confusing illness that has many types and symptoms. In many cases, it can’t be controllable, especially at the advanced levels. When doctors give the best medication plan, the probability of recovery from the disease increases; let’s see what happens in the cancer cell. So, let us know what the cancerous cells are? And what happened within them? To be aware of the cell mutation process.
First, what is the cancer cell?
A cancer cell is a cell that divides unusually and grows to develop a cancerous tumor in the end; this division takes time, and it may even take years to develop the lump.
Cell division is a normal process that the body uses to repair and grow, but the cancer cell is different because the cancer cell grows faster than the normal one and develops a lump that increases in size, forming a solid malignant tumor.
So, what happens in the cancer cells?
When a cell faces changes in the DNA, the possibility of developing cancer increases; these changes occur in a specific part of DNA called genes. So, genetic changes are the first cause of cancer.
Genetic changes control the cells’ functions which start to divide and grow up-normally forming tumors as we mentioned above.
According to Cancer.gov, genetic changes in DNA can happen because of:
- Environmental influences like ultraviolet rays from the sun
- Certain chemicals like tobacco smoke
- Spontaneous mutations.
- Errors that occur during cell divisions.
Usually, the body gets rid of damaged DNA cells before their mutation into cancerous cells, but this ability decreases with increasing age which high the risk of being attacked with cancer in old age. Even inside the same lump, each cancerous cell has different genetic changes.
What are the types of genes that cause cancer?
The genetic change affects 3 main types of genes:
Pro-oncogenes participate in growing and dividing cells normally, and when changes happen to cells, genes become cancerous, which lets damaged cells stay alive and grow.
Tumor suppressor genes:
Tumor suppressor participates too in controlling cells and their division. Cells may divide abnormally in tumor suppressor genes, and that causes malignant tumor development.
DNA repair genes:
DNA repair genes participate in fixing and repairing damaged DNA. Mutation cells in these genes start to develop other mutations and changes in other genes like deletions and duplications of chromosome parts. These changes and mutations increase the risk of making the cell cancerous.
When does cancer spread in the body?
The name of cancer that spreads from a place to a place in the body is metastatic cancer, and this process of cancer spreading is called metastasis.
Metastatic cancer has the same type of cancer cells as the original or primary one; for example, lung cancer that forms a metastatic lump in the brain is metastatic lung cancer, not brain cancer.
When we put metastatic cancer cells and original cancer cells under the microscope, we find that they are the same. Also, they usually have some molecular features like the presence of specific chromosome changes.
Metastasis cancer is aggressive as it causes severe damage to the body’s functions. The main goal of doctors here is to control the cells’ growth to relieve symptoms and prolong people’s lives as much as possible.
What are the types of cancer?
According to cancer.net, cancer has 4 main types based on where it begins; these types are:
Knowing the types of cancer is necessary, especially if you have some weird and unusual symptoms you want to make sure of; we write a detailed blog post about cancer types and categories that you will benefit from.
Also, knowing symptoms is urgent if you have a malignant tumor in your body; this helps you to observe any harmful changes that require visiting your doctor.
Again, Don’t hesitate to contact us if you face any unusual signs in your body; contact us and pick an appointment that suits you with the best doctor in the UK.